# Unit-31-LO4 Communicate findings using appropriate charts/tables-BTEC-HND-Level 4 & 5

Course: Pearson BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals in Business

A good table or chart might contain the following information:

A chart with a y-axis of “Number of Users” and an x-axis of “Effectiveness Rating” may show the following line graph:

This graph shows that 84% of users found this effective, which is a high effectiveness rating. The fewest number of users found this ineffective (18%). Without looking at your data, it’s hard to know what the conclusion would be from this visual representation.

But, for example, if you write an assignment or gave a presentation as part of your examination with research on how videos in eLearning are helpful in certain areas but not in others based on various numbers, you could represent your findings in a visual way to help your audience understand the relationships between various numbers.

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## Different variables:

### Choosing the most effective way of communicating the results of your analysis and variables.

The best way to communicate the results of an analysis is through the use of graphics and charts.

Graphics give a better visualization into how changes in values correspond to changes in impact on some metric, something that is more difficult to do with raw data.

Charts are also useful for showing metrics over time, which can be powerful if there has been a change. What pieces of information are available – such as titles or labels – will also affect whether graphs or charts are preferable.

### Nominal, ordinal, and interval/ratio levels.

Nominally scaled data is basically just ranked from low to high.

Ordinal data includes a rank order, but no interval or ratio properties, like the Lea-Carborda Trend Test that compares different drugs against each other.

Interval/ratio data will have both an interval and ratio scale measurement attached.

For example, diastolic blood pressure has the value 110 – 119 mmHg on its interval side (mean = 113). This leaves us with [0,-inf) and [-inf.,+inf.] totals of observations for the corresponding population size (N=4294).

The ratio measurements are raised to an appropriate power; higher positive powers indicate normally distributed distribution quintiles that we can use to understand the shape of the variable.

## Different types of charts/tables and diagrams:

### what is the use of frequency tables, simple tables, pie charts, histograms, frequency curves, and normal curves?

The frequency table is often used in “descriptive statistics” which are also known as measures of the central tendency and variability.

A frequency table tabulates qualitative attributes for multiple cases or quantitative variables that are converted to numbers, such as those describing income and amount of schooling completed.

Frequency tables with two rows for each variable (e.g. male vs female) can be called a “two-way” table; more rare scenarios would have three variables (e.g., race/ethnicity, gender, completion of high school).

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A simple table is a very basic structure in HTML.

The use of tables for layouts serves one function, and that is the responsibility to provide a layout for textual information on the screen. It was never intended to be the only way of arranging content, but rather one among many technical remedies for columnar or tabular data representation. The technique can be useful given how it reduces page load time by compressing text into blocks and then stacking those blocks together on screen.

Pie charts are used to convey data by dividing it up into sections. Generally, they are a circular chart that divides data into sectors corresponding to the proportion of the whole and can be used in many topics from finance, psychology, statistics, or composition analysis when applied to painting and iconography.

A histogram is a graphical representation of the number of data points at different levels of intensity (height). The area under a histogram is the probability distribution associated with that variable.

A histogram allows rapid comparison between two or more variables while also giving insight into the distribution properties associated with multiple types and ranges values among them. As such, they are used to summarize large amounts of categorical data in batches and help visualize and understand broader statistics.

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Frequency curves are useful for understanding how frequencies are distributed in a population. This can be used to determine the frequency of given values, calculate an expected amount of measurement errors, or identify anomalies.

Normal curves can be used for a variety of purposes.

For example, to create a two-sided confidence interval for the mean, or to find where 99.7% of the population falls in terms of height.

Normal curves are also used for determining probabilities that a person will live more than 5 years past diagnosis with HIV, so they can effectively plan and budget for this information. Along with all sorts of other applications!

Column Bar Graph

The advantages of using graphs over tables are that they have the ability to summarize large datasets in visual form, easily compare two or three data sets, and provide better clarity than a table. One disadvantage is that you may need an additional written or verbal explanation for them if there’s too much information on one graph. They can also be manipulated to give false impressions which makes it important to use caution when interpreting results from graphs as well.

Line Graph

Advantages: Better than other charts to show the trend and relationship between data; compare the trends of different groups of variables; clearly show the error value in the data; Usually easy to read and understand

Disadvantages: There are multiple lines on the graph, especially irrelevant ones that may cause confusion; it is difficult to determine the exact value of the data.

Pie Graph

Advantages: Provides an excellent overall visual concept; a clear comparison of different components, highlighting information by visually separating a segment, easy to mark, and a lot of space.

Disadvantages: It is difficult to compare two data sets; the total number represented by the graph is unknown; it is difficult to understand without labels (especially segments of similar size).

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Advantages: The main way to display two or more values ​​at once; an excellent way to get the “feel” of the data.

Disadvantages: Cannot compare two or more different plots at the same time; without coloring, it is difficult to tell which points belong to whom; too many axes make it more unintuitive to read than other graphic types.

### Presentation of information using tables and charts

There are a number of different types of charts and tables that may be used to present information. Understanding the rationale for using these methods is important.

A good rule to follow, when presenting data in rows and columns of numbers on a table, is Stick With Words Not Charts. The reader should be able to read the information aloud without referring back to previous lines or pages unless it is necessary for clarity.

The main advantage of using a table over a line graph is that what you’re displaying can depend on whether you need left-to-right or up-and-down comparisons rather than just basic sorting by date/time. A bar chart might not have horizontal zero points like an XY scatterplot chart does for easy comparison.

### Software for producing charts/tables (e.g. Excel)

Charting software is primarily used for displaying data in a way that can be easily interpreted by humans. These are called graphical displays or graphical information systems because, unlike words, computer images can communicate a large amount of information very quickly.

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They’re terrific for understanding processes like how the human circulatory system works by showing you an animated video of cells flowing through the body so you’ll understand what happens as it gets clogged up with cholesterol over time.

There are three basic types of charts and tables for statistical data visualization that provide different levels of detail.

A line chart will visually represent changes (e.g., sales) over time with a single line on the graph which shows trends such as more expenses in 2014 than 2013; a bar chart will represent the same data as a series of bars covering the same time frame showing how much money was spent in each period; and a pie chart can give you even more detail by visually breaking down sales over time between different regions, departments, or products.

A table is useful for displaying large amounts of information about people (or things) in rows and columns.  It’s used especially when you have lots of blank cells because it allows users to easily sort through the collected data with an interactive column headings menu so they could focus on specific types of characteristics.

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